Samples Health 3 Parent Biological Parents and a Baby: New York Times

3 Parent Biological Parents and a Baby: New York Times

909 words 4 page(s)

Question One

In vitro fertilization is categorized as a form of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) which is commonly used to enhance the reproduction process. The type of fertilization represents a modern form of fertilization, in that, it contradicts the traditional fertilization process (In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is a procedure whereby the woman’s eggs and the man’s sperms are combined in a test tube (Elder & Dale, 2011). The method has been used to solve fertilization related issues by creating proper conditions in which an embryo can develop healthily. The fertilized egg is then placed in the uterus that can carry a baby to term. The people who use this type of fertilization are women whose uterus is not suitable to carry a baby to term as a result of issues related to fertilization and a complicated pregnancy. IVF has a more than 50% success rates in that majority of the people who partake in the procedure are successful in the long run (Bauer, 2004).

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Question Two
Mitochondria are cytoplasm organelle cells found in the body and are used to perform a number of metabolic functions. The cells are significant to the general growth of the human body. For the cells to survive for a considerable amount of time, they have to be supplied with sufficient energy to perform different functions. The primary functions of mitochondria are to enhance the performance of cells by generating energy for a particular body organ (Weintraub, 2014). For example, the brain is responsible for communicating to the rest of the body through the help of the nerves, spine, etc. As such, the mitochondria support the various functions of the brain by supplying both the brain and the central nervous system with energy. Ideally, mitochondria can only be transferred from the mother to the baby through the maternal ovaries. The mitochondria have a set of genes that are used to determine the development of a child. Currently, research showcases that the mitochondria can also be transferred from the father to the child. However, this argument is yet to be determined with further research (Elder & Dale, 2011). 

Question Three
In the light of the three parent baby concept, the creation of an IVF child using three people is not uncommon in present day. The procedure is much more complicated compared to the regular IVF procedures. For example, mitochondria from a third party are transferred to an embryo through various methods of incorporation. Mitochondria can be transferred from the donor to a selected egg after the fertilization of the egg. In this case, the egg is fertilized outside the egg and incorporated into the new mitochondria. Alternatively, the mother’s nuclear arrangement is transferred into the donor egg. The donor egg is then fertilized with the sperm of the father. Both procedures have proved to be effective in implanting mitochondria into a new cell, donor or embryo (Bauer, 2004).

Question Four
The first disease that the procedure can cure is the mitochondrial diseases. The mitochondrial disease is an inherited disease from the mother to the baby owing to the lack of a healthy composition of mitochondria in the mother’s cell composition. The disease reduces the rate of infertility when inherited by the baby, in that abnormal cell may be inherited, making the baby experience unusual defects. Another disease that this technology can be used to cure is the Parkinson’s diseases. The disease is a condition that affects the movement of the body owing to the defects of the nervous system. The condition is a progressive disorder since it occurs in stages with each stage recording a significant deterioration of the body organs. The condition affects the normal growth of the body being that the patient experiences dementia, anxiety, and stunted growth, and body tremors (Weintraub, 2014).

Question Five
The Three parent IVF procedure is a controversial topic owing to the use of three people to make one baby. Initially, the procedure was introduced to give children with birth disorders a fighting chance in terms of their mental and physical disorder. Research shows that some of the procedures have resulted in the successful creation of a baby. Despite this, there is immense of speculation that surrounds this technique in that most of the procedures have been found to have issues. An analysis of scientific data and logic reveals that the traditional mitochondria transfer processes were not as effective as that of the past (Gvozdjáková, 2008). A look at Cohen’s procedure, which requires for the cells of two women are combined with a man’s shows that the procedure can produce a normal child like Alana Saarinen’s. Despite this, some of the babies that have undergone this procedure have not had the same luck. For example, some of the children have been reported to have the Turner syndrome or abnormality defects. While the medical field is in support of this procedure, a number of professionals in the industry are reluctant because of the negative repercussions of some of the samples. However, doctors in support of this notion argue that the procedure is more effective in present day because of the improvement of the mitochondria transfer procedures developed over the years (Elder & Dale, 2011). 

  • Bauer, M. F., & Koehler, C. M. (2004). Mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Berlin [u.a.: Springer.
  • Elder, K., & Dale, B. (2011). In-vitro fertilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Gvozdjáková, A. (2008). Mitochondrial medicine: Mitochondrial metabolism, diseases, diagnosis, and therapy. Dordrecht: Springer.
  • Weintraub, K. (2014). Three Biological Parents and a Baby. New York Times. Pdf.