The following characteristics should be followed to resolve the trilemma: 1) no competition with food crops and not causing land clearing, 2) reduction of the greenhouse effect and 3) no environmental pollution biofuel production technology (Tilman et al. 2009). Such solutions would help to exclude interference of crops with biofuel, solve environmental problems, and protect the surroundings from the pollution.
The characteristics of the biofuels should be monitored to control the impact level on both food-generating land and environment as a whole (Newton & Cantarello 2014). For example, anaerobic microorganisms create biogas that is produced by energy crops, sewage, manure, municipal solid waste, or any other organic material. In the result of the decomposition process, biogas and digestate rich in nutrients to be used as fertiliser are produced (Newton & Cantarello 2014).
The primary objectives of the dams are to generate hydroelectric power, provide irrigation, and control food. The latter is done in the areas that are exposed to the heavy rains through the control of the water level. The positive environmental effects of dams are 1) the creation of the large-scale reservoirs, from which water can be released in the case of necessity; 2) generation of electricity; 3) powering turbine generators; 4) ability to store energy with the possibility of covering the pick energy demands. The adverse effects of dams are 1) severe changes to the local ecosystem; 2) increased risks of landslides; 3) erosion of the downstream bed; 4) interference with the river live forms (Xu, Tan & Yang 2013).
The most obvious way of avoiding the adverse effects of building dams is not to build them in the tropics. Soil erosion can be prevented by ensuring the relevant downstream flow of water in the dams (Xu, Tan & Yang 2013). Technical innovations related to the breeding of fishes, such as fish cannons, can be applied to restore or improve the fish population.
- Newton, AC & Cantarello, E 2014, An introduction to the green economy: Science, systems and sustainability. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, London.
- Tilman, D, Socolow, R, Foley, JA, Hill, J, Larson, E, Lynd, L, Pacala, S, Reilly, J, Searchinger, T, Somerville, C & Williams, R 2009, ‘Beneficial biofuels – the food, energy, and environment trilemma’, Science, no. 325. doi: 10.1126/science.1177970.
- Xu, X, Tan, Y & Yang, G 2013, ‘Environmental impact assessments of the Three Gorges Project in China: Issues and interventions’, Earth-Science Reviews, no. 124, pp. 115-135. doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2013.05.007.