Female Reproductive Disorders

360 words | 2 page(s)

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a cyclical disorder that causes physical and emotional distress to women. The symptoms of PMS may vary from women to women and generally involve weight gain, swollen breasts, edema, fatigue, joint pain, skin eruptions, mood swings, head ache, and cravings for sweet and salty food. Relief strategies include regular exercise and avoiding caffeine, salt, and alcohol (Tortora & Derrickson, 2013). Endometriosis is the appearance of endometrial tissue outside the lining of the uterine cavity. Endometriosis usually occurs between the ages of 30 and 40 and mostly in women who postpone child-bearing. The primary complication from endometriosis is infertility (Med-Help).

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a disorder in which PMS-like signs do no disappear after menstruation cycle. Researchers think PMDD is caused by abnormal responses to normal levels of ovarian hormones. Breast cancer is the second biggest cause of death from cancer among American women. About 5 percent of the breast cancer cases in the U.S. result from genetic mutations. Researchers have identified two genes that increase the risk of breast cancer and they are BRCA1 and BRCA2. Risk factors for breast cancer include family history, nulliparity, previous case of breast cancer, exposure to ionizing radiation, smoking, and alcohol addiction (Tortora & Derrickson, 2013).

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Ovarian cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer among women and the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies. It is difficult to detect before it spreads beyond the ovaries. Risk factors for ovarian cancer include family history, more than forty years of active ovulation, nulliparity or first pregnancy after the age of thirty, and prolonged exposure to asbestos. Cervical cancer affects 12,000 women in America annually and kills about 4,000 during the same period. It starts as cervical dysplasia, a change in the shape, number, and growth of cervical cells, and sometimes the abnormal cells become normal and other times they proceed to the cancer stage. Almost all cervical cancers are caused by several types of HPV. The symptoms of cervical cancer include abnormal vaginal bleeding. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a yeast-like fungus that grows on the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. It is experienced at least once by about 75 percent of the females (Tortora & Derrickson, 2013).

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