Samples Research Management Research Methods

Management Research Methods

902 words 4 page(s)

Business and management research refers to a systematic inquiry that plays a crucial role in helping to solve business issues and contributes to the development of management knowledge (Zikmund, Babin, Carr & Griffin, 2012). For one to carry out sound research in the discipline of business and management, it is essential to develop an awareness of research approaches and techniques. Many are times that business managers are involved in designing of various projects in organizations. They do this by using decisions based on the existing knowledge that results from what other individuals have learned from applied academic research (Zikmund et al., 2012). In this view, it is essential to conduct research to solve the management problems. In this view, this paper focuses on defining, describing, and analyzing the relative characteristics and issues in relation to ontology, epistemology, axiology, and paradigm in business and management research. Besides, it provides illustrations of inductive and deductive reasoning.

Management research methods focus on fostering the readers an understanding of the fundamental research processes and capabilities to identify management-related questions (Bryman & Bell, 2015). Learners will learn what others have designed and conducted research studies to answer the management-related questions. Using the research methods, learners gain some insight regarding the manner in which other scholars have designed and conducted research studies to answer the management-related questions as well as investigating the sources of the main existing literature in the management (Bryman & Bell, 2015).

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In the context of ontology, business, and management research refers to the ways of constructing reality (Hassard & Pym, 2012). This implies how things are, and they work. There is an objective reality, which can be understood and through it the laws by which it governs. In epistemology, it is concerned with various forms of knowledge of the reality of the nature of the relationship that exist between the inquirers and inquired (Hassard & Pym, 2012). It asks questions, such as how do people know and what tools do people use to know the reality. Epistemology employs scientific discourse derived from epistemologies of positivism and realism. The methods apply experimental and deductions. The research question, such as what, how much and the causes and effects are addressed (Hassard & Pym, 2012). Research paradigm positivism deals with the discovery of laws that govern the behavior. On the other hand, constructivism is a qualitative research that focuses on shedding some light from an insider perspective. It relies on investigating and exposing the power relationships of pragmatism. Mostly, interventions, interactions, and their effects in multiple contexts are examined (Miller & Tsang, 2011). Concerning axiology, the business and management research focus on evaluating what is valuable in the research being carried. The ethical issues in the study are addressed using axiology. There are values and ethical issues that are taken care of when business and management research is being conducted.

Notably, the ontological assumptions are concerned with the nature of reality, and it is abstract while epistemology ones examine what can be known (Myers, 2013). This implies the knowledge and provides a researcher with a broader choice of methods than would have been the case. Epistemology is essential in business and management research because of the multidisciplinary context of business and management. Nature means that there are different types of knowledge required, such as numerical data, text and visual data, facts, among others (Myers, 2013). Axiological assumptions are meant to investigate what is important and a valuable in research that is being conducted. There are also methodological assumptions that are made regarding the methods and procedures that are allowed within the paradigm (Myers, 2013). Like other studies conducted in other disciplines, business and management research utilizes the framework and theories where the arguments are based upon. In most cases, they help to understand the behavior of the phenomenon under study.

In business and management research, deductive and inductive research can be applied. Deductive approach primarily focuses on causality while inductive approaches aim at exploring new phenomena using different perspectives (Gabriel, 2013). Deductive approach is used to test a theory and begins from general to a particular conclusion. When conducting qualitative research in business and management, inductive research methods are utilized. It uses research questions to narrow the scope of the study. Many scholars whose objectives are to generate new theory emerging from data utilize the inductive approach. This does not mean that the deductive approach cannot be used. A researcher using this approach is expected to begin the study with an open mind without preconceived ideas if what will be found. It is important to state that grounded theory is used when using this approach (Gabriel, 2013). On the other hand, a deductive approach is used when the quantitative study is carried out. Usually, it begins with a theory, and then it moves the formulation of hypothesis followed by observation and finally confirms the findings (Gabriel, 2013). In inductive reasoning, it is the vice versa where observation of the pattern, which is followed by a tentative hypothesis and then the application of a theory.

In conclusion, research methods in business and management are essential for the reason that it gives a manager a chance to seek answers to business questions. The strategies and theories that are used provide the managers with useful information that they use when developing projects in their organizations. Evidently, they become more relevant when the methods use philosophical approaches. The purpose of the organization investigation is to develop recommendations for action to solve issues without radical changes because rapid changes may require changing managers.

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