Normally, paradigm refers to the example or model to be emulated or a particular way of doing things. It was during a discussion of the nature of scientific progress that Thomas Kuhn introduced the concept. The concept of philosophical foundations including how knowledge conditions are determined and their meaning is the concern for epistemology. This concern entails the methods of how knowledge is attained, constitutes of knowledge, and the reliability of the gained scientific knowledge. On the other hand, the philosophical study of actuality as it refers to knowledge taking into account the contextual affect and cultural effect changes the perceptions of life.
At times, qualitative research is described as interpretive, ethnographic, postmodern, and critical research (Creswell, 1997). On the other hand, quantitative research has the description of post-positivist, positivist, empirical or otherwise referred as objectivist. Therefore, according to Creswell, positivistic paradigm that has the reference of science research is based on the empiricist, rationalistic philosophy and a deterministic philosophy is reflected where causes perhaps determine outcomes and their effects.
World view I has the assertion of reality awaiting discovery since it is distinct from human beings hence it strives to be value free. This view is deductive, and scientific. The world is viewed to be in process by the world view II depicting people as actively creating knowledge. Instead of the universal laws to be uncovered, the description of rich context in which persons operate is illustrated by the worldview II.
Michael Patton held the practical view that one can study to be a worthy observer or interviewer without prior engagement in profound epistemological consideration and philosophical education be able to learn and interpret data sensibly. The study in particular tends to be inclined and be a hindrance.
- Creswell, J. W. (1997). Research design: Qualitative & quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, Calif. [u.a.: Sage Publications.
- Creswell, J. W. (1997). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among 5 traditions. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.