According to some scholars, the beginning of natural science starts in the pre-literate human era where knowledge on the natural world was essential for the survival of the societies. Human beings made observation and developed knowledge regarding the behavior and character of animals and the importance of plants as medicine and food, which was consequently passed to other subsequent generations. The more formal inquiry that took place between 3500 and 3000 B.C in Ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian culture was bred from the primitive understandings of the pre-literate humans.
Natural philosophy, which is the predecessor of natural science was produced from the written evidence of the formal inquiry. Essentially, natural science began with the Aristotelian natural philosophy that took place between 400 B.C and 1100 A.D, the medieval natural philosophy between 1100 and 1600, Newton and the scientific revolution between 1600 and 1800, 19th century developments between 1800 and 1900, and finally, the most modern science which began from 1900 to the present.
Natural science is a subdivision of science focusing with the prediction, description, and understanding the various natural phenomenon that take place on the universe on the basis of observation and firsthand evidence. Verification of the hypotheses is important in natural science. It is required to be scientifically verified in order for it to be considered as a scientific theories. To prove the scientific theory in natural science, accuracy, social mechanism and validity are used to ensure quality control.
According to Grant (2007), natural science is divided into two key branches which include physical science, and life or biological science. Physical science is subdivided further into astronomy, physics, Earth science, and chemistry. All the natural science branches are divided into several specialized subdivisions or fields. Each of the fields is referred to a natural science.
- Grant, E (2007). A history of natural philosophy: from the ancient world to the nineteenth century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.