Balter, M. (2015). Can epigenetics explain homosexuality puzzle? Science, 350(6257), 148.
This article details the findings of a new study which suggests that “epigenetic effects – chemical modifications of the human genome that alter gene activity without changing the DNA sequence– may sometimes influence sexual orientation” (Balter, 2015, p. 148). A strength of this study is that it has been conducted in the field of genetic biology rather than sociology, providing biological support for the sociological theories outlined in other sources in this annotated bibliography. This source will be useful in disproving the idea that homosexuality is “unnatural” in a biological sense, because it shows that homosexuality is one of many “natural” biological options.
England, P. (2016). Sometimes the Social Becomes Personal. American Sociological Review, 81(1), 4–28.
This article details the findings of a study which suggests that social constraints have a direct impact on individual outcomes, including engagement in same-sex relations. A particular strength of this article is that it compares two different empirical case studies, in order to support this claim. Because only one of these studies deals with homosexuality, this helps negate any bias that might have pertained to the study on this topic. This source will be useful because indicating the social constructs that contribute to attitudes towards homosexuality as “unnatural” will help to disprove any arguments against homosexuality as biologically “abnormal”.
Larsen, S. (2015). Natural Law and the “Sin Against Nature”. Journal of Religious Ethics, 43(4), 629-673.
This academic historical and cultural study documents the origin of arguments about homosexuality as “unnatural” in specific theological and etymological roots: specifically within the context of normative historical Christianity. A particular strength of this study is that it explores the historical arguments against homosexuality in great detail, and with a focus on the key key-words “normal” and “natural”. Because this study demonstrates the word “natural” to have changed in meaning over time when applied to homosexuality, and specifically within religious social contexts, this article will help support the argument that homosexuality can be considered “normal” in modern society.
- Balter, M. (2015). Can epigenetics explain homosexuality puzzle? Science, 350(6257), 148.
- England, P. (2016). Sometimes the Social Becomes Personal. American Sociological Review, 81(1), 4–28.
- Larsen, S. (2015). Natural Law and the “Sin Against Nature”. Journal of Religious Ethics, 43(4), 629-673.