Healthy People 2020, established in America in 2010, aims to create awareness for quality healthcare. It is mainly aimed at ensuring equity to healthcare access and enhance the control of the preventable diseases (Koh, 2010). One of the key indicators of the achievement of the goals, is an increment in access to health facilities and increased utilization of quality health care. Additionally, the department has addressed the cardiovascular diseases, specifically the heart disease.
According to Go et al., (2014), a heart disease is a health problem that attracts the highest revenue from both the government and non-governmental organizations that seek to advance the welfare of the humanity including the World Health Organization. Stroke, on the other hand, is the third cause of deaths that occurs among the American population (Go et al., 2014). Both diseases are highly preventable, and hence the Department of Human Health and Services in the USA outlined them as the first conditions Health People 2020 could address.
Among the risk factors and to some extent the major causes (etiology) of the heart disease and stroke include cigarettes smoking, high levels of cholesterol, poor diets, and reduced body exercises, diabetes, high blood pressure and obesity (Koh, 2010). The combination of these factors leads to the heart attack and subsequent stroke and heart failures. From the epidemiological perspective, there is a high sodium intake among the Americans. The sodium intake exceeds the recommended amounts, hence causing the increased cases of high blood pressure. In American population, one in every three individuals is known to suffer from the high blood pressure which is a health risk factor for these two conditions, that is, heart attack and stroke. Therefore, the challenge of controlling the risk factor of high blood pressure poses a challenge to the prevention of heart disease (Koh, 2010). The Healthy People 2020 emphasizes the fact that the reduction in the number of deaths among US populations is achievable through creating awareness and facilitating health diets, reduced cigarettes smoking, and increased physical activities among adults and children.
Stevens & Shi (2013), posits that the disparities in heart disease and stroke among other cardiovascular diseases cut across gender lines, geographical locations of the human population, economic wellbeing, race and the ages of the human population. The reasons for existence of these disparities range from the economic to ecological or geographical spheres. For instance, the aged population is at a higher risk of suffering from heart diseases as opposed to the youths since the reduction of the physical activities is notable with increasing age. Furthermore, women are more predisposed to heart attack and stroke since their gender roles more or less restrict them to the domestic chores where there are limited physical exercises as opposed to men who are engaged in the production activities.
Economic status of the human population dictates the ease of access of treatment and other clinical preventive measures (Wang et al., 2011). The geographical locations characterize the ease, timely and appropriate treatment in the event that one has been diagnosed with a particular condition. Race and geography further determine the risk factors prevalence for a particular group of people (Wang et al., 2011). Geography, for instance, explains the social, political and economic situation that enables people to cope with certain risk factors. It also describes the mode of production and technology at hand. Technology, for instance in the American continent leads to reduced physical activities since almost every aspect of human life is auto-run. Contrary to the USA, the African continent has low technology advancement hence more physical activities in the modes of production. There is ease of burning the excessive calories where physical activities are carried out in the African setting as opposed to developed countries such as America and Japan.
Some of the research questions that have not been studied yet range from the recurrence of the cardiovascular diseases and with particular attention to heart disease and stroke. Such questions include:
What tools are needed to sufficiently curb and monitor the advancement in heart and stroke treatment among other cardiovascular diseases?
How often do cardiovascular diseases including heart disease and stroke occur?
Is there any other impairment resulting from a heart attack and stroke?
Prevention as well as treatment of cardiovascular ailments are significant social policies since they revolve around the social, economic, ecological and cultural spheres as outlined in the Healthy People 2020’s goals, vision, and mission as well as the indicator (Institute of Medicine: USA, 2011). Keen measures and control of these conditions will enhance improved public health through access to medical care and facilities by all the human population nationally.
Among the social economic and political barriers include insufficient funds for the necessary research for the advancement of the public health department (Institute of Medicine: USA, 2011). Furthermore, there is the lack of political goodwill towards the promotion of the discipline and enhancing free medical access to public. The information about heart attack and stroke can be disseminated through advocating for the registration for the health insurance since according to the research by the Healthy People 2020 majority of people who have medical insurance covers have access to the health facilities.
General or specific policy by the health administrator to the individuals who have financial constraints can have a positive impact on them. For instance, the policy on facilitation of medical insurance cover means that a large number of people can consult the medics when there are signs of heart attack or stroke since the public will be educated through the awareness programs as outlined by the Healthy People 2020 (Institute of Medicine U.S.A, 2011).